Journal of International Consumer Marketing: Vol. In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). A second criticism of the cross-cultural consumer behavior field is the need to re-visit early topics of research: most notably consumer research on the African-American culture. While this search yielded a total of 25 additional cross-cultural articles, virtually all of the citations were from different journals; hence it is reasonable to assume that the four journals surveyed adequately represent the concentration of cross-cultural consumer research. Although language may prove to be a poor segmentation variable, language preference is still the predominant determinant of acculturation in cross-cultural psychology literature and research suggests it may be instrumental in anticipating and encouraging diffusion of innovations among different cultures (Takada and Jain 1991). Yin-Hui Cheng, National Taichung University of Education. In contrast, studies of Europe are more likely to be cross-national (i.e., comparing consumer behavior in the U.S. with that of a Western European country, as noted with an "N" in Figure 3). In this study the impact of cultural factors on consumer buying behaviour is studied. In reviewing the literature, we attempted to distinguish studies of cross-national nature from those examining more specific cultural elements in the consumer behavior context. 14, eds. Lee, Wei-Na (1989), "The Mass-Mediated Consumption Realities of Three Cultural Groups," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 394-397. }���3���ḣW���N=�ǻ�R��=��=���zGϯ�߇\$��^d���~�l�,��J��[�3����dC��D�,�R�R���{�Ry)&��}�ɋ������>��=+MU���a��٪hr2��(��F��EQ}����s�+�X�E!��ߦ�Kq3}R�a�P����͔���Um�OD�ψ��2��ψ� (1983), for example, examined family purchases in the U.S., France, Holland, Gabon, and Venezuela, while Kim, Laroche and Joy (1990) examined the French and English subcultures in Canada. Consumer Behavior Topics under Cross-Cultural Examination As illustrated in Figures 6-8, a variety of consumer behavior topics are discussed in a cross-cultural context. Journal of Marketing, 45 (Spring), 98-109. 17, eds. Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December), 310-321. Hester, Susan B. and Mary Yeun (1987), "The Influence of Country of Origin on Consumer Attitude and Buying Behavior in the United States and Canada," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Figure 2 illustrates the diversity of American subcultures examined by consumer behavior researchers. This article presents a framework that integrates and reinterprets current research in cross‐cultural consumer behavior. 14, eds. Jolibert, Alain J.P. and Gary Baumgartner (1981), "Toward a Definition of the Consumerist Segment in France," Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (June), 114-117. Following on the heels of the 1975-85 expansion, during the 1986-1990 period, only 7 of the 37 articles published examined subcultures (as opposed to cultures outside the United States). Review and future directions of cross-cultural consumer services research Jingyun Zhanga,⁎, Sharon E. Beattyb,1, Gianfranco Walshc,2 a Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA b Culverhouse College of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Alabama, P. O. The Cross-Cultural Consumption research project is funded by an $88,000 research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. A substantial lack of knowledge has led to calls for investigations into the differences or similarities of consumers across nations and All behavioral research is comparative; that is, it involves a comparison of experimental and a control group, e.g., samples of working and non-working wives, husband and wife roles, middle and lower social class consumers, users and non-users of a service, etc. Kelly, Robert F., (1987), "Culture as Commodity: The Marketing of Cultural Objects and Cultural Experiences," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, ed. Jolibert, Alain J.P. and Carlos Fernandez-Moreno (1983), "A Comparison of French and Mexican Gift Giving Practices," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In Advances in Consumer Research, vol. The dynamic nature of culture means changing cultural values over time. {�����Э��u�ǻO��?�}���y������Cs���t��}��wD&D^T٧�Y��LUY]i������ ����c���\��u��,�Ů��o��� K! 3 ed. and Jan C. Reuijl (1985), "Advertising and Industry Sales: An Empirical Study of the West German Cigarette Market," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), 92-98. Dawson and Bamossy (1990) found the "increased saliency of ownership of material goods" to be related to Calvinist idealism expressed through organized religion; thus including many cultures outside the U.S.. Figure 2 illustrates the diverse subcultures investigated as well as the trend away from studying the African-American subculture to studies of the Hispanic subculture in the mid-1980s. (1983), for example, examined family purchases in the U.S., France, Holland, Gabon, and Venezuela, while Kim, Laroche and Joy (1990) examined the French and English subcultures in Canada. Answer: D. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 406. Cunningham, Bronis Verhage, and Alain Strazzieri (1983), "Societal Development and Family Purchasing Roles: A Cross-National Study," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (March), 436-442. The thesis for this paper stated the cultural factors that evoked consumers’ buying decision. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 392-393. 17, eds. William D. Perreault, Atlanta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, 297-301. In addition, the Asian or Oriental subculture deserves more attention. Our findings suggest that cultural category analysis yields the most serviceable results when it is used prior to quantitatively oriented research instruments such as surveys or experiments. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 730-733. Goldman, Arieh (1974), "Outreach of Consumers and the Modernization of Urban Food Retailing in Developing Countries," Journal of Marketing, 38 (October), 8-16. FIGURE 4 CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER STUDIES OF THE AMERICAS (EXCLUDING U.S.) AND AFRICA FIGURE 5 CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOR RESEARCH ASIA AND AUSTRALIA FIGURE 6 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: LANGUAGE Substituting tangible goods for representations of cultural values is intuitively appealing and overcomes many of the methodological challenges of accessing and evaluating consumers' internal beliefs and values which become further convoluted by cross-cultural analysis. A cross-cultural study, therefore, examines data and explains results on the basis of cultural meaning, not national boundaries. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 122-126. Yet, even the subcultures studied reflect the discipline's increasing range. Ellis, Seth, James McCullough, Melanie Wallendorf, and Chin Tion Tan (1985), "Cultural Values and Behavior: Chineseness within Geographic Boundaries," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.12, eds. Each issue, published quarterly, examines topics that span societies, nations and cultures, providing strategies for the systematic testing of theories about human society and behavior. Issues of particular concern include: definition of cultural concepts, re-visiting early cross-cultural research, critical assessment of cross-cultural methods, focus on commonalities among cultures, and increased emphasis on theoretical underpinnings of cross-cultural consumer behavior. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 735-740. All behavioral research is comparative; that is, it involves a comparison of experimental and a control group, e.g., samples of working and non-working wives, husband and wife roles, middle and lower social class consumers, users and non-users of a service, etc. Clarke, Yvonne and Geoffrey N. Soutar (1982), "Consumer Acquisition Patterns for Durable Goods: Australian Evidence," Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (March), 456-460. Fairchild, Henry P. (1970), Dictionary of Sociology, Totowa, NJ: Littlefield & Adams. In addition to materialism previously discussed, two key valuesCfate orientation and relationship to others (including individual determinism)Creceived sufficient attention in the reviewed literature to warrant comparisons across cultures. (1980), "Cultural Comparisons of Variety-Seeking Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Farris, Buford E. and Norval D. Glenn (1976), "Fatalism and Familism among Anglos and Mexican Americans in San Antonio," Sociology and Social Research, 60 (No. The Hofstede model In his study of the Europeanizing of America, Kanter (1978) proposes that as a result of external conditions, Americans are becoming more fatalistic in their approach to life. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202. Reflecting the social influences of the 1960s, most subcultural studies published between 1970-1975 dealt with the African-American subcultureCfrequently referred to as "negroes" (Bush, Gwinner, and Solomon 1974; Cohen 1970; Gensch, and Staelin 1972; Gould, Sigband, and Zoerner 1970; Pruden and Longman 1972; Sexton 1971a, 1971b, 1972). �)u�eH�\Vm^]҅UD�ڼ��R@�����y�}w���*>. Much of the reviewed cross-cultural did not mention which definition of the term 'culture' was adopted. While a discussion on cross-cultural methods is beyond the scope of this paper, it nonetheless, needs to be addressed if the field is to move beyond the descriptive research stage. Indeed, the term "culture" was scarcely seen in the literature until 1974 when the consumer behavior field came into its own journal and conference. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research: psychology, behavior and beyond. Stanton, John, Rajan Chandran, and Jeffrey Lowenhar (1981), "Consumerism in Developing CountriesCThe Brazilian Experience," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. Clearly the study of archaeology holds promise for future investigation in consumer research. Green, Robert T. and Philip D. White (1976), "Methodological Considerations in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, 7 (Fall/Winter), 81-88. Types of goods or artifacts studied are obviously broad categories. 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Last few years of Research Findings MariekedeMooij Geert Hofstede ABSTRACT ( 1991 ) the Disuniting America... '' in Advances in Consumer Research, 71-74 Research SIG, please contact Dr Michaelidou. A twenty-year time frame, 1970 to 1990, was determined to be appropriate for this review. P. Douglas, Susan P. Douglas, Susan P. ( 1970 ),.! The comprehensive literature review of cross-cultural Consumer behavior Research undertaken in this study the of! With cultural self-construals and Consumer behavior: a review of Research Findings MariekedeMooij Hofstede..., Wright and Vanhuele, 2008: 4 ) 1970 to 1990, determined... T., Jean-Paul Leonardi, Jean-Louis Chandon, Isabella C.M cross cultural consumer research 847-849 still... Prior to 1975 ( Pruden and Longman 1972 ) examined more than one article include advertising,,. Of shifts and changes in a global/cross-cultural perspective upon Consumer behavior researchers and contrasting two or more cultures.! 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cross cultural consumer research

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